Articles by JCS
The Responsibility for Failure
“The ultimate objective of the AMA, theoretically,
is the complete elimination of the chiropractic profession.”
Robert Youngerman, attorney for the AMA’s Department of Investigation
In the Court of Public Opinion:
Chiropractors v. the Medical Profession
Ladies and Gentlemen of the Jury:
You have read a lengthy discourse on the war against the chiropractic profession suffered at the hands of the American Medical Association. It has been a voluminous story covering many topics involving many people over many years. Please bear with me now as I summarize the facts so you can come to a just and fair conclusion that the AMA is guilty of its attempted assassination of the chiropractic profession, guilty of fomenting unwarranted public skepticism, and guilty of impugning the reputations of thousands of decent, hard-working chiropractors.
More important is the incriminating evidence the experts now tell us: the medical profession has perpetuated a “pandemic of pain” as Paul Goodley mentioned and “left a wake of disability” as Gordon Waddell wrote. You also heard Bruce Charlton speak of “Zombie scientific theories based purely on the basis of enlightened self interest.” All of these men are renowned medical doctors who have the integrity to be honest about the rampage of unnecessary back surgeries. Thankfully, the truth is finally emerging.
First of all, you were probably surprised to learn that the art of spinal manipulation is not new—over 3,000 years the great Egyptian doctor, Imhotep, wrote of this healing art. You learned of the medieval European bonesetters, one of whom, Sir Herbert Atkinson Barker, was knighted by the King George V of England. You learned about other early bonesetters such as the families of Sweets and Tieszens who immigrated to the United States long before AT Still began osteopathy or DD Palmer began chiropractic. Indeed, spinal manipulation is an ageless art that has helped millions of people around the world throughout the centuries. Despite this memorable history and scientific proof, the American medical profession has ignored it and has irrationally fought chiropractors tooth and nail.
You learned of the mastermind of this war, Morris Fishbein, who terrorized chiropractors for no good reason other than to create a medical monopoly. He was the voice and face of political medicine for a quarter of a century, and his propaganda and tactics have lived on long past his death to impugn the good men and women who sought to help patients without drugs or surgery, which was the only crime of these alternative doctors—to get patients well naturally.
You learned that Morris Fishbein was known as the Medical Mussolini by his contemporaries. He was not coy about his intentions when he wrote openly of his evil intention: “Scientific medicine absorbs from them that which is good, if there is any good, and then they die.” Many alternative practitioners did die in the medical war; many more were left gravely wounded or buried altogether. These were the casualties in this unknown medical war that few people have ever appreciated.
Historian Russell W. Gibbons recognized that “chiropractors felt the brunt as one of the first grass roots movements in America.” And for this effort to attain social justice, they paid a heavy price. This ordeal suffered by the chiropractic profession has been a treacherous road less traveled by thick-skinned and strong-willed chiropractors who have endured the tribulations that were unknown to most Americans.
Most of all, you learned of the public skepticism came from the intense medical propaganda to defame the reputations of chiropractors. Writer Milton Mayor in 1949 prophetically dubbed the AMA as “…the most terrifying trade association on earth.” Little did he know the true nature of the AMA would be more than just terrifying because its real intention was to inflict a mortal wound on the entire chiropractic profession.
You learned how Fishbein’s successors, Robert Throckmorton, H. Doyl Taylor, Robert Youngerman, and Joseph A. Sabatier, were the spin doctors who headed the Committee on Quackery and used propaganda as a weapon to destroy chiropractic, including such schemes as distributing Quack Packs to educators and editors, tampering with committeemen during the Medicare legislation debate, and sponsoring many biased media efforts to misinform the public with public figures like columnist Ann Landers, author Ralph Lee Smith, and even Ronald Reagan with his Operation Coffee Cup.
You read the evidence presented by attorney George McAndrews during the Wilk trial that led the judge to find the AMA guilty. You read of the extensive research done by both the AHCPR and New Zealand committees that thoroughly studied back pain treatments and concluded that chiropractic care was appropriate, safe, effective, and should be embraced by the mainstream health care system.
Despite this legal victory, you learned how the AMA misinformers later worked to thwart progress in the back pain treatments, most notably how it killed the AHCPR guideline #14 on acute low back pain in adults. Regrettably, the North American Spine Society attacked the AHCPR on Capitol Hill and sabotaged this noteworthy study because it did not endorse spinal surgery. It is a prime example how the dirty tricks of Morris Fishbein are still alive in political medicine.
More so, you have learned of the new emerging research that medical researchers themselves have determined back surgeries are mostly unnecessary and ineffective. You heard the editors of TheBACKLetter tell us, “The world of spinal medicine, unfortunately, is producing patients with failed back surgery syndrome at an alarming rate.” This is quite an admission from these prestigious medical editors.
The proof is positive and research studies cannot be clearer that chiropractic stands at the top of spinal treatments as Anthony Rosner, PhD, testified before The Institute of Medicine: “Today, we can argue that chiropractic care, at least for back pain, appears to have vaulted from last to first place as a treatment option.”
You have also learned from Scott Haldeman and John Mennell how chiropractic care may help organic and visceral problems. Joseph Janse and Virgil Strang mentioned that spinal subluxations may impair the homeostasis of the body, and Heidi Haavik-Taylor and Bernadette Murphy showed us that a chiropractic adjustment is equivalent to rebooting the brain’s circuitry. Most interesting, we learned that back pain may even cause the brain to degenerate as A. Vania Apkarian’s research team now shows. Indeed, DD Palmer was correct when he said chiropractic was ahead of its time, and these modern researchers now substantiate his early beliefs.
These brave chiropractic warriors were not the only victims of this medical war. The public has also been victimized by the collateral fire in this medical war. Thousands, if not millions, of Americans and people around the world have suffered from a pandemic of pain that was, for the most part, preventable if the medical profession had not promoted a campaign to boycott the chiropractic profession.
Certainly the turning point in this dark episode of America history was the Wilk v. AMA federal antitrust trial when a few brave chiropractors sued the AMA and ten co-conspirators. The Wilk v. AMA trial revealed this war was not simply an antitrust case where one competitor tried to corner the market; it was a blitzkrieg of cultural, economic, and political might by the AMA to completely destroy the chiropractic profession.
In a chilling statement by the AMA attorney Robert Youngerman, he did not mince words when he said, “The ultimate objective of the AMA, theoretically, is the complete elimination of the chiropractic profession.”
These are scary words, my friends, which reveal a mindset that America and the world had seen once before. Let me compare this medical war against chiropractors with another war that shocked the world, especially for those of us with German ancestry. Indeed, Germany has given the world many notables like Beethoven, Bach, Mozart, Friedrich Nietzsche, Karl Benz, Rudolf Diesel, Marlene Dietrich, and Albert Einstein, to name a few. The German culture is refined, its food and drink are delicious, and the German people are bright and hospitable.
But Germany also brought to the world the tyranny of Adolf Hitler and his gang of Nazis who shook western civilization to its core of sensibility with the most barbaric atrocities ever seen. The acts of cruelty in World War II by the German Nazis were well documented in the media–no one can ever forget the pictures of death camps responsible for millions of tortured and murdered innocents.
Certainly the AMA’s atrocities in the medical war were not as horrendous as those done by the Nazis, but their evil schemes stemmed from the same devious mindset of men filled with similar hate and bigotry toward chiropractors. Their painful remarks are on the record. The more the AMA executives spoke, the more their testimonies appeared eerily reminiscent of the German Nazis.
Remarkably, the AMA had the same intent as the Nazi’s “Final Solution to the Jewish Question” to eliminate another group of innocent people as they admitted in testimony. According to court records, the AMA’s attorney Robert Throckmorton clearly spelled out his equivalence to the Final Solution in his article, “What Medicine Should Do about the Chiropractic Menace,” labeling chiropractic an “unscientific cult” that deserved to be eliminated. The similarity is shocking—the Jews were vilified by the Nazis just as chiropractors were demonized by the AMA.
Let me remind the jury of the historical facts in this case because it was a despicable attitude that led to this medical war. Simply replace the word “Jew” for “chiropractic” and you can understand the mindset of these medical men initially led by Morris Fishbein followed by his successors in their Department of Investigation and Committee on Quackery.
Quoting from their own words, let me reiterate their frightening prejudice that was bitterly strong. In 1962, the AMA Committee on Quackery issued a call to arms–its Iowa Plan–to demand the entire medical community “undertake a positive program of containment.” As the AMA’s Committee on Quackery executives testified, their goal was to watch chiropractors “wither on the vine” hoping the “chiropractic menace will die a natural but somewhat undramatic death.”
Tell me: does this sound like scientific men seeking the truth about health care in scholarly a debate or scientific research? Of course not; it speaks of medical bigots who wanted to eliminate a competitor at all costs.
Youngerman described in a memo the same demagoguery that the Nazis used to demonize the Jews when he wrote that chiropractors “…present a clear and present danger to the health and welfare of the public, and it would seem that as guardians of our nation’s health, doctors of medicine should be dedicated to the total elimination of any such unscientific cult.”
Let us pause to reflect upon this Iowa Plan strategy: I thought doctors were supposed to eliminate disease and suffering, not other healthcare providers. Just how far has the AMA strayed from the Hippocratic Oath to “do no harm”?
In spite of this horrendous language, Youngerman would still have you believe in the Good Samaritan image of MDs: “The public does and should look to the medical profession for unbiased and authoritative information on this subject.”
Indeed, did anything he said seem “unbiased” to you? His intention was for every honest American to embrace his mindset—the hatred, bigotry, and the lies. Sadly, too many did, just as many good Germans embraced the Nazi hatred after hearing the same lie repeatedly—“Jews are bad, Jews are bad…kill the Jews.” Likewise, too many MDs chanted the medical mantra—“chiropractors are quacks, chiropractors are dangerous, chiropractors are rabid dogs and killers.” They had no proof, but that did not stop them from provoking hatred and disseminating propaganda.
These masters of deception had even deceived themselves. We heard H. Doyl Taylor admit, “I didn’t know a chiropractor from an antelope.” But when his superiors told him chiropractic was a menace, he reconsidered his admitted ignorance and immediately recognized chiropractic as the “greatest hazard to the public health…I opposed whatever the Committee instructed me to oppose.” Like a good Storm Trooper, he carried out his duty unmercifully.
It became clear that many of the AMA’s policies toward chiropractors paralleled those of the Nazi’s. For example, it was well known the Nazis did not want any “race defilement” by the Jews with Aryans. Clearly the AMA played its own “race” card against chiropractors with Principle 3 of the Medical Ethics that declared unethical for any MD to associate with chiropractors. Likewise, its Principle 4 even demanded that AMA members to spy on each other, just as Hitler had spies among the German people. 
With Principles 3 and 4, the AMA threatened their own members with professional “sterilization” if caught joined with chiropractors for the betterment of patients. It was professional death and financial ruin for MDs not to abide by both Principle 3 and 4 from 1963 until 1980. Regrettably, this fear of retribution lingers on today among many good-willed MDs who remain afraid to refer to chiropractors for fear of professional disapproval.
To the Committee on Quackery, chiropractors were not colleagues in the fight against pain and suffering, but they were enemies to be eliminated by any means. Just as any MD might prescribe an antibiotic to kill a germ without giving it a second thought, this Committee tried to wipe out chiropractors with the same indifference.
Indeed, if Fishbein and his ilk were living in Germany at that time, there is no doubt that chiropractors would have found themselves in the same death camps with the Jews. Ironically, since Morris Fishbein was a Jew himself, he most likely would have been a victim of the same bigotry he held toward chiropractors.
Just as the Nazis deprived human rights to Jews, the AMA did the same to chiropractors who were deprived of their constitutional rights. The AMA taught its members and students that chiropractors were a threat to their financial fortunes; hate and power would replace their Hippocratic Oath with the Iowa Plan.
However, do not think this war has subsided. Just as the Nazi’s burned books, we saw the same academic tyranny as recently as 2005 at Florida State University when Ralph Bellamy, MD, and his medical mob sabotaged the will of the Florida state legislature that had voted 151-1 to implement a chiropractic program. Apparently the will of this medical mob superseded the will of the people and the state government in Florida.
Certainly, this medical tyranny at FSU was a travesty of academic freedom. We heard Bellamy’s bigotry when he called chiropractic a “‘pseudoscience” and “gobbledygook…not one shred of science.” Clearly these are not facts coming from a rational scientific or academic mind, but the ranting of a medical bigot hell-bent on spewing old propaganda from yesteryear. Once again, we heard Morris Fishbein speaking from the grave.
During the Wilk trial, you heard the “admissions against interest” by many medical witnesses’ testimonies that made the judge remark how these medical-defendants’ witnesses were actually testifying in behalf of the chiropractic-plaintiffs. Yes, you heard the testimonies of honest MDs who knew that chiropractic helped patients and told the court these truths. Just as not all Germans were Nazis, not all MDs toed the line of the evil men within the AMA. They were the “flowers in the desert” of medical depravity.
It may be difficult from some of you to think of your friendly neighborhood medical doctor as one who would harbor such awful sentiments. You are taught to give him or her respect as the so-called “guardian of your health.” While it certainly is true the medical profession has helped many of us, there is another side of the medical profession that is just as strong, if not stronger; an evil side that this trial has exposed to you probably for the first time, and is a social injustice that the chiropractic profession has seen bear its teeth for over a century.
The Iowa Plan, in essence, acted as an herbicide that wiped out many of these flowers. This extermination plan resulted in a “lengthy, systematic, successful, and unlawful boycott” described by the judge to eliminate the profession of chiropractic that has never been properly acknowledged. Judge Getzendanner admitted in her Opinion that “The AMA has never made any attempt to publicly repair the damage the boycott did to chiropractors’ reputations.” 
Restitution has never been paid to the 12,000 chiropractors who were prosecuted 15,000 times or to the 3,300 who were unfairly imprisoned in the first half of the twentieth century. This atrocity did not include the thousands of chiropractors who surrendered in the medical war, those who were spiritually broken, physically beaten, financially ruined, and those who finally decided to quit the fight. These MIAs were not among the final count of the victims of the medical war, but they too were casualties.
The fear of imprisonment was not that long ago considering the last chiropractor in the United States went to jail in 1975, in Shreveport, Louisiana. Medical tyranny continues to this day when chiropractors are omitted from hospitals, limited by insurance, ignored by the media, or whenever anyone says, “I don’t believe in chiropractors.” This medical war has not ended.
Despite the proven atrocities in the medical war, it was the typical white collar crime when none of the guilty AMA executives went to jail, no public apology was made to the chiropractors, and no admission of guilt was offered to the public or press. At trial, the AMA executives Drs. Wilson and Howard were quite proud of their anti-chiropractic position. There was not one sign of contrition from them, just as the Nazis never gave one apology for their illegal and inhumane actions.
Even the AMA’s lead attorney, Kirk B. Johnson, inexplicably denied the AMA’s complicity and disregarded the court’s decision when he wrote, “Therefore, the decision will have little or no impact on patients and their physicians.”
Instead, it will have a negative impact upon patients suffering needlessly as more unnecessary spine surgeries are committed on unsuspecting patients.
Do you realize what this medical boycott possibly means to you? If you or a member of your family are injured in a car accident, for example, and taken to a public hospital, even if you asked for your chiropractor to come treat you, and even though he or she is licensed by the state government, and even though you are in a public hospital paid by our public taxes, your favorite chiropractor is still barred from entering that hospital to help you. Does this sound right to you? Just where is your freedom of choice to choose the appropriate doctor to help you get well?
As you would quickly learn, only the local medical society dictates who practices in that public facility and most keep all competition out to maintain their stronghold. In spite of the Wilk trial ruling, this boycott is still virtually in effect since very few hospitals allow chiropractors on staff. When only six percent of chiropractors have hospital privileges, it is obvious the medical society has little intention to integrate. There is just too much pride, prejudice, and money at stake to give patients a freedom of choice in their own healthcare matters.
It is impossible to understand how a profession supposedly dedicated to saving lives would have as its main political goal the total elimination of a competitor that posed no danger to patients and had a proven track record that dates back thousands of years. The only real menace it posed was a financial pain to MDs. Has the medical mindset become so jaded that they are willing to “eliminate” chiropractors merely to make more money? This is a frightening accusation, but one that can be supported by the facts in this case.
At the Nuremberg trials after World War II, the judges agonized over a similar dilemma—who was responsible for the atrocities of the Third Reich? The Nazi Party, of course, was mainly responsible, but where should the judges draw the line?
The German defense attorneys said these horrible acts were done by a handful of Nazi extremists, not by an entire nation; they insisted the German public did not know what was happening. Yet, even good Germans said nothing as they profited by the expropriation of the Jewish businesses that were closed. No one complained when Germans appropriated the homes once owned by the Jews. The judges decided the entire German people bore the “responsibility for failure” of the once-proud German nation.
Perhaps the same can be said of the general primary care physician today who may or may not be a loyal member of the AMA, but one who shares the lingering bigotry toward chiropractors by refusing to refer appropriate cases to chiropractors for care. Certainly, what can be said of the spine surgeons who know the research cannot support the vast quantities of spine fusions done today, but they refuse to refer to chiropractors as the guidelines suggest?
You heard the frustration from Dr. Richard Deyo, a renowned spine researcher, when he said: “People say, ‘I’m not going to put up with it,’ and we in the medical profession have turned to ever more aggressive medication, narcotic medication, and more invasive surgery.” This is quite an admission from a spine researcher.
Obviously surgical experimentation still exists, just as we once saw in the death camps as with Drs. Josef Mengele and Eduard Wirths who practiced on POWs at Auschwitz. Knowing the call for restraint in spine surgery in America, when the medical experimentation and exploitation of patients will stop?
Ultimately someone needs to ask: Where does the responsibility for these surgical failures rest? Of course, it rests with not only the surgeons, but with the primary care providers who send patients to surgeons without trying chiropractors first as the guidelines recommend. It also rests with MRI owners, the hospitals, the surgical device manufacturers, and even the insurance companies who profit by these expensive and mostly ineffective surgeries by charging higher premiums to cover these huge costs.
This is a $100 billion industry that the medical cartel has no wish to lose to chiropractors who could help patients get well cheaply without drugs, shots, or surgery. This has been a failure of ethics as well as a failure of the lack of free enterprise in healthcare today when chiropractors are purposely excluded from hospitals so patients are not afforded the freedom of choice about their treatment options.
Certainly, just as all of Germany was responsible for the atrocities done by the Nazis, the AMA and its entire membership are responsible for the many unnecessary and ineffective surgeries that are done by surgeons who have expropriated cases that should rightfully belong to chiropractors.
This is the real medical monarchy we have in America today as Dr. Benjamin Rush warned about over two hundred years ago. Indeed, the current demise of the American healthcare delivery system is not a result of bad luck or unforeseen circumstances, but it is the result of the medical monarchy’s war on competition and free enterprise. Just as post-war Germany was left in ruins, the American healthcare system today is in dire straits by this medical monarchy.
In conclusion, I ask the jury in the court of public opinion to be fair-minded in your appraisal of chiropractic, something the medical profession has never been. For perhaps the first time, I ask that you be objective about chiropractic rather than the listening to the propaganda you have heard too long from the spin doctors.
I ask you to think carefully of the millions of patients, perhaps yourself or family member included, who has suffered needlessly from back pain, the most disabling condition in America today, when simple chiropractic care could have helped them.
Think of the millions of people who suffer from dementia that might have been caused by a spinal injury left uncorrected as Dr. Apkarian taught us. Think of the millions of patients misdiagnosed for their Type O disorders that are simply spinovisceral reflexes that spinal adjustments might have helped as Drs. Haldeman and Mennell taught us.
I ask you to think of the thousands of chiropractors over the past one hundred years who were constantly harassed because they helped sick people get well without drugs or surgery. Think of the thousands who were sent to prison for the crime of helping patients with the ageless art of spinal manipulation.
Think of their thick-skins, strong backbones, and the broken hearts these chiropractic warriors endured in this medical war that they fought literally with only their hands. Like the Russian peasants who fought the Nazis soldiers with only their pitch forks, the medical war against chiropractors has been another unfair battle against medical tyranny. The chiropractors did not have the war chest funded by the tobacco and drug companies to pay for propaganda like the medical profession did. The only propaganda chiropractors have ever had were satisfied patients telling their friends.
Think of the millions of Americans who suffered from this medical war with unnecessary and ineffective spine surgeries as you heard the experts tell us. Think of the millions who are now addicted to strong medications for their chronic back pain from failed back surgeries. Think of the millions disabled from ever working again because they were misdiagnosed, mistreated, and misinformed that chiropractic care could help them. These people are also victims of this war who were never given a second opinion.
Perhaps now you can understand why it is so important every chiropractor be able to work unfettered to help the millions of people who suffer daily. Now you can understand why chiropractors want the same civil rights, basic liberties, and professional respect they are due in a free society. They ask for no special privileges as the medical brethren enjoy; chiropractors do not want to stand alongside them on the medical pedestal. All they ask for is a fair chance on a level playing field to help patients get well.
Let me add one last important point for you to consider.
Without the grace of God, we know the conscience of a medical bigot with a blackened heart toward chiropractors cannot change. But what does this mean in terms of your own personal morality? Just as the German population after the war had to reject the Nazi dogma against the Jewish people as a failed social ideology, and just as Southerners in America had to learn after the Civil War that slavery was unacceptable, now every American who has been tainted by the medical propaganda needs to learn their skepticism of chiropractors is unjustified, too.
Like all other social injustices, it demands that you act up for social change. Just as Afro-Americans marched for civil rights in Selma, Alabama, and Berkeley students protested on campus for free speech, there are ways you can help overcome the medical segregation of chiropractors.
When you hear a distasteful racist joke or hear a sexist comment about a woman, it is morally-incorrect to encourage such bigotry with laughter or a smile in agreement. The same can be said about sneering comments by medical chauvinists. If you hear an MD call a chiropractor a quack, just recall that is Morris Fishbein, the Medical Mussolini, speaking from the grave.
If you hear someone saying chiropractic is unscientific, recall the new research, the trial evidence, and the testimonies from medical experts who support chiropractic care. Recall the comparative studies and international guidelines that determined spinal manipulation was preferable to drugs, shots, and back surgeries for most cases. You now know the truth and let it set you free of this medical bigotry.
This untold story of chiropractic from persecution to vindication has been a dark chapter in medicine. Without a doubt, if you had not heard the preceding evidence, you would not have believed this stranger than fiction story; a story of social injustice that begged to be told.
It is time for the good men and women in medicine to make amends for the damage done by their predecessors. It is time for the medical profession to take responsibility for this failure. Instead of throwing them under the medical bus, it is time for the medical professionals to help chiropractors brush off the indignation they experienced and to sit alongside them on the road to better patient care. Indeed, it is time for conciliatory actions to speak louder than misguided words from medical bigots.
Finally, it is past time to give chiropractors the respect they are due for helping millions of people with only their hands. It is time to give them their pride back. The next time you meet a chiropractor, rather than looking at him or her with a jaundice eye from that remaining bit of prejudice you might have lingering in your mind, let them show you their war wounds, let them speak of their emotional battle scars, and let them tell you what it is like to battle the most terrifying trade association on earth. Then let them tell you how they can help you live a healthier life with less pain. There is a lot we all can learn from these warriors in this medical war.
Ladies and gentlemen of the jury, I ask that you find the AMA guilty of crimes against humanity. I ask that you make them bear the responsibility of this healthcare failure and the unwarranted burden they have caused chiropractors. But this requires not only the vote of your opinion, but I ask you to vote with your feet. Walk out of the MDs office if he will not refer you to a chiropractor. Walk out of the hospital that only offers you drugs, shots, and surgery. Walk away from the medical bigot who demeans the local chiropractor.
Here is one quick and easy test to determine if your MD is a medical Nazi: Simply ask him or her what they think of chiropractors. If they spout the medical propaganda, run as fast as you can. If they respond positively, they you have found a flower in the desert.
Demand that your local hospital employ chiropractors to help patients. Demand your insurance coverage give chiropractors the same coverage they give MDs and physical therapists. Demand your workers’ compensation programs utilize chiropractic care for work-related injuries. Demand our public universities have a chiropractic curriculum to insure academic freedom. Demand research funds to chiropractic colleges to conduct extensive research to learn how chiropractic care might help people with Type O and Type B disorders as the experts told us.
In other words, demand that doctors of chiropractic are entitled to the same rights as medical doctors. That’s fair enough, isn’t it? That’s the American way.
Let me leave you with one small uplifting comment by a former leader of the chiropractic profession. Despite the on-going medical war, there were those chiropractors who stood tall above the fray because they knew there was a bigger battle at hand. Dr. Kerwin Winkler, former chairman of the American Chiropractic Association’s Board of Governors, mentioned the plight of chiropractic:
“It is time to tear down the walls of isolation, bridge the moats of prejudice, and work as a separate and distinct brigade of the same army. The enemy is not medicine; the enemy is disease.”
Ladies and gentlemen of the jury, Dr. Winkler’s comment is the most intelligent statement I’ve heard throughout this entire war. I hope you take his wish to heart to bring an end to this senseless war. As he said, “It is time to tear down the walls of isolation…” It’s time for every American to tear down the walls of the medical Bastille.
 Memo from Robert Youngerman to Robert Throckmorton, 24 September 1963, plaintiff’s exhibit 173, Wilk v.AMA.
 Morris Fishbein, Medical Follies, (New York, Boni & Liveright, 1925): 43.
 Gibbons, ibid. p. 67.
 Milton Sanford Mayer, “The Rise and Fall of Dr. Fishbein,” Harper’s Magazine, (Nov. 1949): 76-85.
 Testimony before The Institute of Medicine: Committee on Use of CAM by the American Public on Feb. 27, 2003.
 Memo from Robert Youngerman to Robert Throckmorton, 24 September 1963, plaintiff’s exhibit 173, Wilk.
 Ibid. PX-172 November 11, 1962.
 George P McAndrews, “Plaintiffs’ Summary of Proofs as an Aid to the Court,” Civil Action No. 76 C 3777, Wilk, June 25, 1987, p. 17.
 Material relating to H. Doyl Taylor is based on a deposition in the case of Wilk et al. v. AMA et al., on 28 April 1987, in Phoenix, 15.
 PX-56, 156A
Chester A. Wilk, James W. Bryden, Patricia A. Arthur, Michael D. Pedigo v. American Medical Association, Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals, American College of Physicians, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, United States District Court Northern District of Illinois, No. 76C3777, Susan Getzendanner, Judge, Judgment dated August 27, 1987.
 Opinion pp. 10
 Editorial Staff, “Looking Back: 1988,” Dynamic Chiropractic 26/06 (March 11, 2008)
“With Costs Rising, Treating Back Pain Often Seems Futile” by Gina Kolata, NY Times, February 9, 2004.
 Kerwin Winkler, DC, Outlook; Aug. 1993